Modern vehicles feature multiple antennas supporting such communication functions as GPS, Cellular, XM/FM Radio, and various others. Accurate prediction of the radiation characteristic of such antennas and pertinent EMI/EMC issues often requires large scale electromagnetic analysis including  both the metal parts of the car body and dielectric layers of the glass windows. On this page we show solution of such problem using Wave3D tools for calculation at 1.17645GHz of radiation pattern of pin-fed microstrip antenna on the roof top of Dodge Charge vehicle featuring 2.5mm glass windows of relative permittivity 2.5 and conductivity of 0.00133.

Fig. 1: Model of Dodge Charger vehicle for calculation of radiation pattern of roof mounted microstrip antenna accounting for the effect of penetrable window glasses. The model features 107,550 triangles discretizing the metal body of the car and 151,755 tetrahedrons discretizing the glass windows and dielectric substrate of the antenna.

Efficient MLFMA acceleration of the solution in Wave3D allows to calculate the solution within a few hours on a single CPU. Field visualization in Paraview provides detailed views of the volumetric distribution of the vector fields in dielectrics, induced current on metal parts of the model as well as near field slices on predefined lines, planes and volumes as shown in Fig. 2 below.

Fig. 2: Snapshot of E-field vectors in the glass layer and dielectric substrate of the antenna and magnitude of electric current density on the metal body (left) in full scale model of Dodge Charger vehicle at 1.17645GHz. Visualization of the E- and H-fields in the dielectric volumes can be performed in scalar form also (right).

MLFMA accelerated evaluation of the far field allows Wave3D to generate radiation pattern on the antennas on electrically large platforms in matter of seconds once the currents in metal and dielectric parts of the model are computed.

Fig. 3: Radiation pattern of pin-fed microstrip antenna mounted on the roof top of Dodge Charger at 1.17645GHz.